This intrigues me most when I think about rise of Christianity, how it spread and how the Roman Empire and then the whole of Europe came under its influence, and then in the sixth century rose Islam to bring together the people from Asia Minor to China under the influence of teachings of Quran. What makes Muslims believe that Jesus is one of the prophets of Islam?
The simplest answer is that Qur’an says Jesus is one of the prophets.
Sura 3, The Family of Imram:84 says: “Say: We believe in Allah and what has been revealed to us, and what was revealed to Ibrahim and Ismail and Ishaq and Yaqoub and the tribes, and what was given to Musa [Moses] and Isa [Jesus] and to the prophets from their Lord; we do not make any distinction between any of them, and to Him do we submit.”
A similar statement is made at Sura The Cow 2:136. He is also called a prophet in Sura The Clans 33:7.